Heart failure means a condition when the heart cannot provide sufficient blood flow to meet physiological needs of the body
Systolic function of the heart is controlled by four important factors.
1. The contractile state of myocardium
2. The preload of the ventricle i.e. the end diastolic volume and the resultant fibre length of the ventricle therefrom just prior to the onset of contraction
3. The after load applied to the ventricles i.e. the impedance to ventricular ejection.
4. Rate of the heart.
Normal heart can increase the cardiac output from 5L to even 20L by adjusting stroke volume and heart rate but in
cardiac failure it is not possible particularly in presence of exercise. To compensate the decreased cardiac output several
physiologic mechanisms come into action. These include increased sympathetic activity, redistribution of blood flow to
essential organs, increased renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone production, cardiac hypertrophy,. Frank-Starling mechanism
and increased peripheral oxygen extraction. All these mechanisms will not only have some favourable effects for
improving cardiac output and circulation but also have some unfavourable and deleterious effects. Compensation in the state
of heart failure may be decompensated by dietary increase of salt, exposure to heat, humidity, effort, anemia, pregnancy
thyrotoxicosis, sudden cardiac dysrhythmia, avoidance of prescribed medicines, etc. Heart failure may be of two types
Low output failure Here the cardiac output is low as occurs in hypertension, coronary vascular disease, myocardial infarction, some valvular disease of the heart.High output failure Here the cardiac output is elevated as occurs in emphysema,
thyrotoxicosis, severe anemia A1, arteriovenous shunt, beri beri and Paget’s disease etc. The mechanism responsible for
the genesis of heart failure in such cases is not clearly understood. Isolated or predominant diastolic dysfunction of
the heart may also manifest features of cardiac failure. It is due to abnormal filling of the ventricles either due to impaired relaxation of the myocardium or due to non-compliant cardiac chamber Clinically, however, heart failure may be manifested as left
ventricular failure, right ventricular failure and biventricular or mixed heart failure .Precipitating factors of heart failure
3. Active carditis.
5. Emotional upsets.
6. Excessive salt intake
7. Infection and infective endocarditis.
8. Myocardial infarction and systemic hypertension.
10. Pregnancy etc
TYPES OF SPECIFIC PNEUMONIA Staphylococcal Pneumonia TYPES OF SPECIFIC PNEUMONIA It may be a primary respiratory infection or secondary to…
ACUTE LOBAR PNEUMONIA It is the commonest of all specific pneumonias. AETIOLOGY Predisposing causes Age: All ages but 50% of…
BRONCHIAL ASTHMA DEFINITION OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA BRONCHIAL ASTHMA is a chronic reversible inflammatory destructive disease of the airways characterised by…
BRONCHIECTASIS DEFINITION BRONCHIECTASIS is a condition of permanent abnormal dilatation of the larger bronchi. AETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS Acquire Obstruction Obstruction…
CHRONIC BRONCHITIS DEFINITION OF CHRONIC BRONCHITIS Chronic bronchitis may be defined as a disease characterised by cough and sputum for…
ACUTE TRACHEO BRONCHITIS DEFINITION ACUTE TRACHEO BRONCHITIS is Acute inflammation of Tracheo bronchial tree caused by various organisms (bacteria and…