HYPERTENSION…Systemic hypertenson is the persistent rise of basal blood pressure above the arbitrary level of 140/90 mm of Hg recorded on three or more successive occasions. There may be only systolic hyprtension. In such cases systolic BP becomes 140 mm of Hg or above.


Essential or Idiopathic hypertenson

Here no obvious cause is found to account for high blood pressure (90%-95% of cases).

Secondary or Symptomatic hypertension (5%-10% of cases)

  1. Renal causes (common): Acute nephritic syndrome, Chronic nephritis, Polycystic kidney, Hydronephrosis, Chronic pyelonephritis, Renal artery stenosis, Renin secreting tumour, Renal embolism.
  2. Endocrine causes: Thyrotoxicosis and myxoedema, Acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome, Primary aldosteronism (Conn’s syndrome), Phaeochromocytoma.
  3. Metabolic causes: Diabetes mellitus, Chronic gout, Toxaemias of pregnancy, Atherosclerosis.
  4. Drugs: Contraceptive pills, Steroids, Liquorice.
  5. Collagenosis and miscellaneous diseases: SLE, Polyarteritis nodosa, Scleroderma, Dermatomyositis, Pseudoxanthoma elasticum,
  6. Congenital: Coarctation of the aorta.
  7. Psychogenic.
  8. Neurological: Encephalitis, Brain tumour Cerebrovascular accidents, Diencephalic syndrome.
  9. Blood disease: Polycythaemia.
  10. Renovascular hypertnsion Particularly in Renal artery stenosis.

11.Miscellaneous Pregnancy, Cyclosporin, NSAID.