LARYNGEAL OBSTRUCTION

LARYNGEAL OBSTRUCTION

(Acute obstruction of the upper airway)

LARYNGEAL OBSTRUCTION is commonly seen in children because of smaller size and caliber of the larynx. Obstruction may be complete or incomplete.

CAUSES

  1. Laryngeal diphtheria.
  2. Oedema glottis from acute laryngitis, inhalation of poisonous and irritant gases or corrosive acids or alkali ingestion etc.
  3. Carcinoma of larynx.
  4. Foreign body in the larynx.
  5. Bilateral abductor paralysis of the larynx
  6. Angioneurotic oedema.
  7. Burns and cellulitis of the neck.
    8.Hanging and throttling.
  8. Spasm of laryngeal muscles as in tetanus, strychnine poisoning, Laryngismus stridulus.
  9. Fixity of the cord due to rheumatoid spondylitis.
  10. Aspiration of food and vomitus in comatose subjects.
    CLINICAL FEATURS
    When the obstruction is partial
    1.Inspiratory dyspnoea.
  11. Sucking in of the supraclavicular fossae and lower intercostal spaces
  12. Stridor
    4.Central cyanosis.
    5.Diminished air entry over both lungs.
    When the obstruction is complete
    1.Acute asphyxia.
    2.Deep cyanosis.
    3.No breath sound over the chest.
    3.Rapid coma.
    4.Death within 5-10 minutes.
    Treatment
    Lower tracheostomy is to be done. Treatment of the cause, e.g., tilting the patient or bronchoscopic aspiration if foreign body is present should be done.
    Stem inhalation in case of acute laryngitis gives relief. Adrenaline 0.5-1 cc (1:1000) parenterally, Betamethasone or Dexamethasone 0.5-1 cc (2-4 mg) parenterally will be helpful. In case of Angioneurotic oedema Steroids is to given.
    In cases of choking by food, Heimlich procedure should be adopted immediately.
    Symptomatic treatment should also be done.

Recent Posts

  • Respiratory Diseases

TYPES OF SPECIFIC PNEUMONIAS

Staphylococcal Pneumonia It may be a primary respiratory infection or secondary to staphylococcal focus anywhere in the body. It is…

2 months ago
  • Respiratory Diseases

ACUTE LOBAR PNEUMONIA

It is the commonest of all specific pneumonias. AETIOLOGY Predisposing causes Age: All ages but 50% of cases are below…

2 months ago
  • Respiratory Diseases

BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

BRONCHIAL ASTHMA DEFINITION OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA BRONCHIAL ASTHMA is a chronic reversible inflammatory destructive disease of the airways characterised by…

2 months ago
  • Respiratory Diseases

BRONCHIECTASIS

BRONCHIECTASIS DEFINITION BRONCHIECTASIS is a condition of permanent abnormal dilatation of the larger bronchi. AETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS Acquire Obstruction Obstruction…

2 months ago
  • Respiratory Diseases

CHRONIC BRONCHITIS

CHRONIC BRONCHITIS DEFINITION OF CHRONIC BRONCHITIS Chronic bronchitis may be defined as a disease characterised by cough and sputum for…

2 months ago
  • Respiratory Diseases

ACUTE TRACHEO BRONCHITIS

ACUTE TRACHEO BRONCHITIS DEFINITION ACUTE TRACHEO BRONCHITIS is Acute inflammation of Tracheo bronchial tree caused by various organisms (bacteria and…

2 months ago